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Artificial Intelligence Around Us
During the 1980s, there was a lot of interest in the field of Artificial Intelligence in America. The great expectations of the 1980s were followed by the skepticism of the 1990s, when the limitations of the capabilities of our current computers were emphasized. The skepticism of the 1990s has largely passed, and one of the main scientific and industrial challenges of the 21st century is the development of Artificial Intelligent Systems (AIS).
AIS development aims to create new technologies that provide solutions to problems in the areas of electronics and heavy industries, agriculture, energy and resource conservation, transportation, human health, public safety, national security and other fields.
At a conference in Buenos Aires in 1995, Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. (Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001 under President Bill Clinton) commented: “These highways, or more accurately, distributed intelligence networks, will allow us to share information, connect and communicate as a global community . From these connections we will gain strong and sustainable economic progress, strong democracies, better solutions to global and local environmental challenges, better health care, and ultimately a greater sense of shared stewardship of our small planet.”
From a historical point of view, AIS appeared in the last century as a result of the evolution of man-machine systems, in which the functions of man and machine are interrelated for the operation of these systems . For example, a craftsman using a work shift, a driver and his car in motion, and workers and machines in a power plant form man-machine systems. In a man-machine system, the human operator provides the goal, direction, and integration. The machine executes everything according to the given directions and provides feedback.
In the process of evolution of man-machine systems, the role of man has diminished in relation to the role of the machines he operates. To perform routine functions, machines have increasingly been equipped with control subsystems, and the resulting man-machine systems have been called “semi-automatic” systems. Gradually, many semi-automatic systems have been transformed into automatic systems.
Thanks to computer systems, there has been a fantastic change in many areas of technology over the last few decades. Earlier machines had the role of executing tasks entrusted to them by human beings. Today, these machines are equipped with highly advanced programmable control systems and various types of sensory devices, enabling them to perform many human tasks, including creative problem solving. Meanwhile, engineers and scientists working on bionic technologies are moving closer to creating machines that can perform some human functions for people with disabilities. As a result, the preconditions for the birth of artificial intelligence appeared.
Ray Kurzweil, in his very interesting book, The Singularity Is Real, found an apt metaphor to describe the process of diffusion of computer systems. He commented: “Advancing computer performance is like water slowly flooding the landscape. Half a century ago, it began drowning the lowlands, driving out human calculators and record clerks, but leaving most of us dry. Now the flood has reached the foothills, and our outposts there are contemplating retreat We feel safe on our summits, but at the present rate, these too will be submerged in half a century more.
It’s also a fair statement when it comes to artificial intelligence (AI). In recent years, some AI programs and systems have successfully copied selected human brain functions and extended human cognitive and decision-making capabilities. As a result, some existing machines can now perform the functions based on the knowledge of a human operator, but with better quality. The inventor of the Lisp programming language, John McCarthy, who also coined the term “Artificial Intelligence” in his proposal for the 1956 Dartmouth Conference, defines AI as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines”.
The term “intelligence” derives from the Latin “intellectus” and is defined as “mind, powers of human thought”. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, “intelligence” has many meanings:
or the ability to learn or understand or cope with new or difficult situations: for example, the skillful use of reason or the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one’s environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria .
or information about an enemy or potential enemy or an area; and an agency dedicated to obtaining this information
or mental acuity
or the basic eternal quality of the divine mind (Christian Science)
o The ability to perform computer functions
It makes sense to look at the definition, “the ability to perform a computer function”. At first glance, an executable computer program, which provides a computing function (for example, calculation or writing text), does not have intelligence. However, consider for a moment that “human or animal instinct” is the inherent disposition of a living organism toward certain behavior. Based on our knowledge of computers, we can count “instinct” as a group of programs written on genetic material such as DNA
When a worker performs his tasks automatically, it means that he has in his brain the necessary “programs” for automatic actions. In part, these programs were created because of the special training he received in order to be able to do his job. Innate and acquired programs are part of human intelligence. It is the same for an executable computer program. The program carries a part of the intellect of its creators, translated into a language (code) that the machine understands.
Therefore, an executable computer program has some intelligence. Modern computer systems that can, for example, choose an optimal decision, or make a rational analysis of external influences for that decision, are intelligent systems. This is why AI is a powerful resource for solutions to a wide range of problems (including unformalized ones) for which there are currently no known solutions.
Historically, the term “intelligence” was associated with government organizations (agencies) engaged in gathering information for national security and defense purposes, such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in America. Today, this term has a broader meaning, with practical applications to real systems and products. AI methods include elements found in cybernetics, computer science, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, linguistics, operations research, economics, control theory, and mathematics, among others. AI also connects and overlaps with fields such as robotics, control systems, programming, data mining, and logistics.
Artificial intelligence systems are the realization of the science of artificial intelligence. In other words, AI could be called “Application of Artificial Intelligence”. The term “AI” is also used to describe an intelligence property of machines or new programs. Many AI experts predict that by the middle of this century, intelligent machines will be all around us. Machines like robots already touch our lives. Automobiles, electronic devices and airplanes are assembled and tested with the help of various robotic machines. The reality that computers have saved the world from the information explosion, while becoming affordable for students and other everyday users, is largely due to the use of intelligent machines. Almost every machine around us is rapidly becoming “smart”, with the help of smart applications. The revenue generated by the AI and robotics industries is now measured in the billions of dollars annually.
With advanced computer systems used in traffic control or manufacturing control, it makes sense to retain the human ability to solve real-time bottleneck problems. Human-machine systems can exist with different levels of automation (from manual to autonomous), and artificial intelligence systems can have different degrees, from simple to very complex.
Today, many applications of Artificial Intelligence are present in industry, business, medicine, automobile navigation, communication, military operations, space exploration, etc. The average person may have little or no knowledge of current AI applications, but they encounter the results of AI many times a day. For example, the amazing functionality of everyday machines such as a car, a sewing machine, kitchen appliances and the Internet, or the quality of television images, movies and telephone communications are all the result of the use of computer systems. ‘artificial intelligence in many common cases. high-tech products.
AIS will undoubtedly become commonplace in the very near future, as the widespread use of these systems will bring more prosperity and better well-being to the entire population of our planet. Intelligent automation systems, various advisory programs and bots can and will do the work we can’t or don’t want to do. The article is an excerpt from the author’s book “Artificial Intelligence Around Us”, published by Bookstand Publishing
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