How Much Math Do You Need To Study Artificial Intelligence Philosophy, Machines, and AI

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Philosophy, Machines, and AI

Is philosophy undergoing a radical transformation? In recent times, this question has been very popular especially after the radical development that is taking place in machine learning and artificial intelligence. Whether this radical development and application of this knowledge in machine learning and artificial intelligence is causing a radical transformation of traditional philosophy?

What is philosophy?

The discipline related to the questions of how to live (ethics); what kind of things exist and what is their essential nature (metaphysics); what counts as genuine knowledge (epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic)?Wikipedia

Some definitions:

Investigation of the nature, causes or principles of reality, knowledge or values, based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods (Dictionary of American Heritage).

The study of the ultimate nature of existence, reality, knowledge and goodness, discovered by human reasoning (English dictionary of penguins).

The rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics (WordNet).

The search for knowledge and truth, especially about the nature of man and his behavior and beliefs (Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary).

The rational and critical investigation of the basic principles (Encarta Microsoft Encyclopedia).

The study of the most general and abstract characteristics of the world, the bases of human knowledge and the evaluation of human behavior (Philosophy pages).

If we look at the definitions we can find that the most underlying principle of philosophy is questioning. The questioning of what is life? How should you live? What kind of things exist and what is their nature? What are the correct principles of reasoning? What are the principles of reality, knowledge or values?

Finding answers or solutions to questions or problems by applying the principles of reasoning is the goal of philosophy. In short, seek knowledge and truth. The search does not necessarily lead to finding the truth. However, the process used to find the truth is more important. History tells us that the wisdom of humans (the body of knowledge and experience that develops within a given society or period) changed and has been continuously changing. Humans seek wisdom (the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense and insight)

Blind beliefs are the biggest obstacles that stop our thought process. Philosophers question these blind beliefs or rather they question all beliefs. They are skeptical of everything. In fact, it is one of the philosophical methods (Methodical doubt) use to find the truth. Philosophy begins with a simple doubt about accepted beliefs. They apply doubt and methodical knowledge to test the functional, dysfunctional or destructive nature of an accepted and prevalent belief in a society. Wait a moment! We have a problem that needs to be fixed first. When we say “knowledge”, it doesn’t necessarily lead us to the truth of the conclusion they reach. Existing knowledge is not complete. Therefore, there is a possibility of fallacy of conclusion. A conclusion can be valid, but it need not be a truth. With the introduction of an additional premise or the deletion of an existing premise, the nature of the conclusion will undergo a change.

fallacies

The other common obstacles to logical and critical thinking are: a) Confirmation bias, b) Framing effects, c) Heuristics, and id) Common fallacies such as relevance fallacies, the Red Herring fallacy, the strawman fallacy, the ad hominem fallacy, fallacy. appeal (to authority), fallacy of composition, fallacy of division, equivocation, appeal to popularity, appeal to tradition, appeal to ignorance , appeal to emotion, begging the question, false dilemma, decision point fallacy, slippery slope fallacy, hasty generalizations, faulty analogies, and the fallacy of fallacy. And we can add the two formal fallacies a) affirming the consequent, b) denying the antecedent.

We humans make mistakes. It is often said that to err is human nature. Having become aware of the myriad fallacies of logical arguments, we have been developing certain methods or models to avoid these fallacies. Philosophical methods are our toolkit that when used reduce our mistakes.

Apart from these obstacles, we have some other human limitations, such as the limitation of short- and long-term memory capacity and the limitation of our sensory capacity. All these limitations are obstacles to our philosophy. So we make mistakes knowingly and unknowingly. However, we have never stopped striving to become the best species on earth.

On the other hand, machines, even if they are not the perfect species, can avoid certain human limitations while performing philosophy. Given two logically supporting propositions, they can deduce a perfect conclusion. However, if they are given randomly selected propositions, will they be able to choose the appropriate propositions that logically support the conclusion? It depends on the algorithm we feed into the machine. But then we are not perfect. We still don’t fully understand how the human brain works. The main purpose of using a machine to philosophize is to avoid mistakes. The machine could imitate human errors, a humiliating human characteristic that we fervently wanted to avoid.

One approach is to allow the machine to learn to think and make decisions for itself. In the process, the machine may be able to develop its own brain that may exceed the capacity and capability of the human brain. That could be a possibility. This approach is already in testing.

Human wisdom is the ability to think and act using knowledge, collective experience, understanding, common sense and insight. Will the machine be able to reach and surpass human wisdom?

The machine can feed on the knowledge accumulated by humans. However, the challenge is how the machine will gather the right knowledge for a correct claim. The machine has no experience of human life. This is actually a blessing in disguise. If we feed all our experiences into the machine, it will be a simple cocktail of beliefs and ideas that are different and mostly diagonally opposed to each other. It’s best to feed the information as little as possible and leave the rest to the machine to have first-hand experience with humans. This means that the machine will live with humans and interact with humans so that they develop knowledge about human behavior and hopefully other human characteristics such as emotional understanding, common sense, etc.

Most likely, philosophical methods that include the rules of reasoning to draw correct conclusions will be very useful to the machine. It can make decisions minus the logical fallacies we commit knowingly and unknowingly. This machine could be very useful to humans, especially as a guide or guard that can function without succumbing to emotions and biases.

Aside from philosophical methods, the machine can also be fed with super-sensory powers without which human intelligence is limited. Humans might take longer to develop these built-in extra sensory powers. Such a machine would be a wonderful work of art.

Philosophical methods will therefore transform the nature of machines rather than machines triggering a radical transformation of philosophy. Machines would help humans draw correct conclusions. Machines would collect the right propositions from the huge data and provide us with a valid conclusion which is a tedious and time-consuming task for humans. Machines can function continuously without boredom unless they develop their own human-like emotions. Hope, machines understand human emotions and at the same time have no emotions.

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