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## Supercharger Calculators Explained

The basics of supercharger calculators…

Supercharger calculators are based on several basic equations that govern performance and the physical rules that bind superchargers together. At the heart of the matter, superchargers work with the Ideal Gas Law where PV = NRT Pressure x Volume = Number of gas molecules X a constant temperature X. What superchargers do is feed the engine with more air molecules , feeding the engine with forced air. This air is forced into the engine due to the supercharger blowing more air into the engine intake than the engine would normally breathe under its own device. The result of this ‘forced induction’ can be observed and measured in one of two aspects: pressure or temperature. In an ideal world, with a supercharger that has perfect adiabatic efficiency, we are able to feed the engine twice as many air molecules (to double the horsepower figure), doubling the intake air pressure (at 2.0 atmospheres or what we call 15 pounds). per square inch (PSI) of thrust). In the real world, superchargers are not 100% efficient, so doubling the input boost pressure may give us less than double the power due to the following:

P*V=n*R*T Pressure increases by a factor of 2 Volume is fixed Number of gas molecules increases by 80% (or a factor of 1.8) Temperature increases by a factor of 11% (or a factor of 1.11) If you look at our equation above, we can see: 2*P*V = 1.8*N*R* 1.11T The equation balances out as 2.0X1 = 1.8 * 1.11 (increased pressure equates to the combined effect of increased air flow). and temperature rise).

From here we can also see that even at the same level of “boost” that a more efficient supercharger can make more horsepower because more of the supercharger’s energy is translated into compression and airflow rather than thermal boost… So how can it be done? do we bring these equations to the “real world” in terms of power and momentum? Let’s start with a 2.0-liter (volume), 140 hp (air molecules) engine. Let’s say we have a goal of 280 horsepower. Our flow ratio will be related to the ratio of our target power to our current power….Density ratio = 280/140 = 2.0 Density = mass / volume and since engine volume is fixed at 2.0 liters, then we need to fit 2.0 times the mass of air in the same volume. This means we have to fit twice as many air molecules into the engine. Now suppose we have a supercharger that is 70% efficient. This means that to achieve a density ratio of 2.0, we need a pressure ratio: P = 2.0 / 0.70 = 2.85 A pressure ratio of 2.85 equals 27 psi. If instead we look at the rise in temperature… then T2/T1 = Pressure ratio / Density ratio Therefore the compressor outlet temperatures T2 = Pressure ratio (P) / Density ratio * T1 (where temperature is in degrees Kelvin).

Assuming an inlet temperature of 80 * F , we find that the outlet temperature of the supercharger is T2 = 309 * F. The thing to think about here are intercoolers or aftercoolers… Aftercoolers are radiators that move heat away of compressed air after that. leave the supercharger. The ideal intercooler dramatically cools the air temperature without drastically impeding the airflow path and thus with minimal pressure drop. The intercooler increases power in three ways:

1 – When cooling the air charge, the density ratio of the mixture increases at the same pressure ratio.

2 – The final temperature of the fuel-air mixture entering the engine drops, which gives a more power-efficient combustion process (since the power output of the combustion event is directly proportional to the difference between intake mixture temperatures and exhaust mixture temperatures).

3 – Lower the final octane requirements of the mixture, allowing us to add more timing advance or more boost pressure, and make more horsepower within the same octane limitations.

With a good intercooler, we can reduce the temperature of the air intake charge up to 30 degrees of the temperature of the ambient air. At the same time, an intercooler will only have a marginal pressure drop of 0.5 to 1.0 psi across the core. Given these numbers, the combination of a Supercharger with an efficient intercooler gives us a system that has adiabatic efficiency much closer to 100%, and this means that we are able to double the power of our original engine to about 18 psi of boost (instead of 27 without the intercooler, and instead of 15 for an “ideal” supercharger) if you care to go through the math behind this scenario.

Once you have your pressure ratio, your density ratio, your intercooler outlet temperatures, and your horsepower and flow rates, most supercharger calculators can give you more detailed specs for your build-up. car (such as the exact numbers of supercharger gears and intake required). and exhaust dimensions as well as fuel pressure or fuel flow upgrade requirements). But at the heart of any supercharged or turbocharged vehicle, PV = nRT will always be true. This is great information to know, because several people have chosen to try and sell water evacuation pumps that are normally used on boats as “electric” superchargers for small displacement engines. It has been proven many times by connecting a pressure gauge to the inlet of any of these “electrically supercharged” engines that these bilge pumps do not have the ability to flow or pressure lock to increase the boost pressure of the mixture input in no measurable amount. . Pressure (as we explained above) isn’t the only indication of forced induction…but without any pressure build-up, that means the “electric” supercharger is 0% efficient, meaning that in the at best it will only heat the inlet air and no excess air flow will be observed.

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