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## How to Do Research for the Award of a PhD Degree in Management Studies?

The main objectives of the doctorate. research

Assessors check certain important research results for the PhD.

(a) The main objective of the effort for the doctorate. The prize should be the creation of new knowledge.

(b) The knowledge must be useful to industry or the academic community.

(c) It should bridge the gap between what is the current knowledge and what is required.

(d) It should clarify suspicions or find answers to major questions that have lingered in the minds of practitioners and academics for quite some time. These questions are called “dilemmas” or “hypotheses”.

What does not qualify to be called “doctoral research”:

1. Collecting material from different sources and writing a voluminous book cannot be called ‘Ph.D. research’. Ph.D. research is not writing a book.

2. Writing a thesis based on a few books or a few newspaper articles or internet sites is not a PhD. research

3. Doctorate. it’s not a survey with some questions (like: Are you married? How many children do you have? How long have you been working? Which soap do you prefer?) or some kind of form-filling feedback. Research must use standard instruments (also called measures, scales, standard scales, and published scales).

How to progress in the research for the doctorate in management studies?

1. The researcher must do an extensive review of the literature; must download up to 500 research articles from online libraries like: ebscohost, emeraldinsight, proquest, jostor, etc. The main objective of the literature review is: to identify research gaps. It means you need to understand where existing research has stopped or what remains unresearched. The gap thus found can be turned into hypotheses.

2. Hypotheses – framing (formulating hypotheses or identifying hypotheses) is the most critical part of the research. Hypotheses are the research questions or dilemmas facing the academic community and waiting to be solved by an academic like you.

3. A hypothesis looks like a question. For example, ‘Are women more satisfied than men with their jobs?’ it is a hypothesis. This is just an example. (This could have been solved by a researcher like you.) Ideally, a Ph.D. The thesis must contain the resolution of 10-50 most critical and interesting hypotheses.

4. The literature review reveals which hypotheses were already solved and you don’t need to solve them again. Literature does not mean anything you find in newspapers, magazines, websites, textbooks, etc. The literature should mainly include articles based on empirical research. Empirical research is what is done based on experiments, observations and data collected with scientifically developed research instruments. Research papers are found in academic journals, especially online journals that provide online libraries like emeraldinsight, jstor, proquest, ebscohost, etc.

5. The literature review, if done diligently, will provide the researcher with an adequate background of his research for logical documentation. The background presented in the thesis will explain how the topic or research question evolved or was understood until now, where it is now, and what the researcher will do about it.

6. The literature review provides: (1) research questions/hypotheses, (2) rationale for the study/research topic.

7. It goes without saying that the research topic should only be identified after an extensive literature review. It is quite sad that universities ask for research topic and hypotheses at the time of application for enrollment (at a time when the candidate has not yet read a single research paper). Ideally, universities should have identified research questions/hypotheses; but it is never the case in our universities here.

8. While conducting a literature review, important findings should be kept in mind. These notes are the main part of the thesis under headings such as: introduction, background, literature review, etc. All referenced articles must be listed correctly in References. There must be cross-links between the articles noted in the reference list and the text of the thesis. What you note in the main text is called an ‘in-text citation’. It means that if you have something in the reference list, it should appear in the main text. The in-text citation looks like (for example): (Meesala, 2011). This should be expanded in the reference list. The way these references are noted is called “academic referencing style”, “academic format”, “academic style”, etc.

9. Reference style follows a certain order in noting authors’ names, year of publication, etc. and also the score. Read the information on Google. There are many academic formats like Harvard style, APA style, MLA style, CMS style, etc.

10. Referencing your thesis is very easy if you are familiar with how to use “References” in MS Word 2007.

What to do after identifying the hypotheses?

If there are no hypotheses identified, there is no research. Research on management issues is about solving hypotheses, not writing books. Hypothesis formulation is followed by research design. Research design is about determining how data (primary data) should be collected and how it should be analyzed.

When the hypotheses are clearly identified, the constructs are clearly identified and available at your fingertips. (Examples of constructs are: personality type, job satisfaction, commitment, engagement and innovative behavior). In your research based on your hypotheses, you may need to deal with 15 to 20 constructs. For each construct, there is a specific, standard, published instrument (also called a “questionnaire,” “measure,” or “scale”). An instrument is a set of questions whose reliability and validity are already established. Visit this site for some ladders. This is an electronic manual of management ladders.

You can find many marketing ladders in a book if you are affiliated with a big library like Indian School of Business. Google “Marketing Ladders”.

What to do if no prepared research scales are found in published journals/books?

It is not possible to find a scale for every construct related to your research.

You have to build the ladder yourself.

The process is to: (1) hold a meeting of some experts and, with their help, generate as many statements as possible about that particular construct. Remove all duplicates. With the remaining items, conduct a pilot survey. Perform item analysis by arranging all responses to an item in ascending order and finding the t-statistic for two extreme response groups. If the t-value is 1.75 or more, the item is good and can be kept. After that, for all construct items, find out the Cronbach’s alpha. If Cronbach’s alpha is greater than 0.60, the construct is reliable. Reliability means that the items (question statements) are well correlated. It is the mean of the item-to-item correlations. In addition, the researcher must develop the content validity index. If the index is greater than 4.00, the scale can be considered a valid scale. Search Google for content validity index.

It should be noted that this questionnaire should be related to hypotheses, but not to any question that crosses the mind of an innocent researcher.

The instrument, of course, should contain a section consisting of questions about the profile of the respondents such as age, sex, income, seniority, etc. The data of these elements can be checked later for their relationship with other constructs.

Determination of sample size

Sample means the number of respondents from whom responses to the questionnaires are to be taken (how many respondents the questionnaires are to be administered).

The sample size must be large enough. The number can be in the range of 200 to 1000. Only a large sample is valid and valuable. Research conducted on a large sample only earns the respect of academics and the academic research community.

The sample size is determined by the population size, the expected standard deviation, and the confidence interval. There are formulas for determining samples. They are: Cocheran’s formula and Slovin’s formula. To learn more about them, Google these terms and use the formulas.

An important point to note is that the validity of your research is enhanced by a random sample, but not by selecting respondents for convenience.

Tabulation and analysis

All answers collected must be entered in an Excel sheet. A row must be assigned to enter the data provided in a questionnaire. For 500 completed questionnaires, 500 rows must be allocated. Data entered in the Excel sheet can be easily imported into SPSS for analysis.

Data tabulation is facilitated by the use of MS Excel. For high-quality analysis, use SPSS (Statistical Procedures for the Social Sciences). Even without SPSS software, the Data Analysis Toolkit in MS Excel can be used as an alternative. With the help of this, descriptive statistics, regression analysis, inter-correlations, Anova tests, etc. can be done.

Report – Writing

For report writing, paragraph writing skills, table of contents and thesis statement development, transition/connecting sentences, linking words, topic sentence, etc. they are critical. In particular, English must be idiomatic and grammatically correct.

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